Abstract: The coasts of the Mediterranean Sea are characterized by the presence of many archaeological remains (ports, protection structures, villas, fish tanks, etc.) that have been emplaced since the Roman Age and have persisted until present day. Due to their archaeological value, these structures represent an inestimable cultural heritage at regional and national scale. As consequence of local sea level variations, most of these structures are today submerged and, for this reason, they represent an important geo-archaeological proxy for the reconstruction of the ancient coastal landscape. Nevertheless, marine processes, such as coastal erosion and/or flooding, are among the main factors contributing to their damage and, hence, protection and conservation strategies need to be enhanced. In this paper, the vulnerability to marine factors of five coastal archaeological sites has been assessed. The investigated sites are located along the Posillipo Hill, one of the most beautiful and attractive coastal sector in the Gulf of Naples (Southern Italy). The analysis has been carried out by applying a vulnerability index method, which is based on the combination of a number of different indicators accounting for both marine processes and the typology of the remains. The results of this study allowed identifying the most vulnerable sites that require, for their conservation and sustainable usability, urgent management strategies. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
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