Women and people of color are still underrepresented in many occupational roles. Being in a situation where one is underrepresented, and thus in the demographic minority, has been shown to be a factor leading to the experience of stereotype threat—the expectation that one will be judged or perceived on the basis of social identity group membership rather than actual performance and potential. Although numerous laboratory studies have documented the negative impact of stereotype threat on short-term task performance, its effects in applied contexts, such as work settings, remain unexplored. Utilizing theories from the social, organizational, and counseling psychology literatures, the authors propose a conceptual model of long-term responses to stereotype threat in the workplace. The authors posit a framework of possible responses to stereotype threat that include fending off the stereo¬type, discouraged by the stereotype, and resilient to the stereotype. Within each response set, there are numerous strategies that an individual can employ, with varying benefits and consequences. The authors conclude the article by suggesting an agenda for future research and discussing the implications of the model for understanding stereotype threat in the workplace.
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