Climate change and air pollution are two major environmental issues linked in several ways. Air pollutants reduction would benefit from the Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation policy. China is facing a serious air pollution and GHG emissions. Effective and low cost strategies to solve these problems have been discussed by a number of researchers. Previous studies typically evaluated near-term and direct co-benefits, neglecting the socio-economic impacts on CO2 and PM2.5 emission. In this paper, production-based and consumption-based emissions are quantified to compare the differences. Input-output analysis (IOA) is adopted to investigate the consumption-based CO2 and PM2.5 emissions that result from the current monetary flows and energy structure. The correlations of CO2 and PM2.5 emissions from both consumption-based and production-based perspectives are assessed to see the extent to which these co-benefits are valued in integrated assessment models. We distribute the indirect emissions to original sector and identify the correlations of CO2 reductions for air quality in Beijing, which provide a new point of view on formulating impartial and effective polices of alleviating the air pollution and reducing CO2 emissions.
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