Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis–Parkinson dementia complex (ALS-PDC) is a neurodegenerative disease with ALS, parkinsonism, and Alzheimer’s symptoms that is prevalent in theGuampopulation.-N-Methylamino alanine(BMAA)has been proposed as the toxic agent damaging several neuronal types in ALS-PDC, including substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic (SNpc DAergic) neurons. BMAA is a mixed glutamate receptor agonist, but the specific pathways activated in DAergic neurons are not yet known. We combined electrophysiology, microfluorometry, and confocal microscopy analysis to monitor membrane potential/current, cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2]i ) changes, cytochrome-c (cyt-c) immunoreactivity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by BMAA. Rapid toxin applications caused reversible membrane depolarization/inward current and increase of firing rate and [Ca2]i in DAergic neurons. The inward current (IBMAA) was mainly mediated by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1), coupled to transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, and to a lesser extent,AMPAreceptors. Indeed, mGluR1 (CPCCOEt) and TRP channels (SKF 96365; Ruthenium Red) antagonists reduced IBMAA, and a small component of IBMAA was reduced by the AMPA receptor antagonist CNQX. Calcium accumulation was mediated by mGluR1 but not by AMPA receptors. Application of a low concentration of NMDA potentiated the BMAA-mediated calcium increase. Prolonged exposure to BMAA caused significant modifications of membrane properties, calcium overload, cell shrinkage, massive cyt-c release into the cytosol and ROS production. In SNpc GABAergic neurons, BMAA activated only AMPA receptors. Our study identifies the mGluR1-activated mechanism induced by BMAA that may cause the neuronal degeneration and parkinsonian symptoms seen in ALS-PDC. Moreover, environmental exposure toBMAAmight possibly also contribute to idiopathic PD.
|Titolo:||Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 mediates the electrophysiological and toxic actions of the cycad derivative beta-N-Methylamino-L-alanine on substantia nigra pars compacta DAergic neurons|
|Autori interni:||GUATTEO, EZIA|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2010|
|Rivista:||THE JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|