Objective: This study aimed to investigate the changes in phase angle and resistin serum levels in relation to nutritional status, and their relationship with clinical and ultrasonographic lipodystrophy in HIV+ children on or off highly active antiretroviral therapy. Materials and Methods: Thirteen HIV + children were evaluated for anthropometric measures, tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance, and serum resistin levels. Fat redistribution was identified by physical examination and quantitatively by ultrasound. Results: Phase angle was lower (p < 0.005) and resistin levels were higher (p < 0.005) in patients who were on rather than off highly active antiretroviral therapy. Multiple regression analysis was employed to assess the relationship between lipodystrophy (clinical and ultrasound), phase angle, and resistin. Highly significant correlations were observed between the content of visceral fat by ultrasound, serum resistin levels (p < 0.0001), phase angle (total) (p < 0.05), and phase angle (length) (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Phase angle and resistin serum levels are sensitive markers of malnutrition and fat redistribution because they reflect the content of cell mass and visceral fat in HIV-infected children.
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