The aim of this work is to examine the relationship between countries economic growth (or per capita income) and environmental degradation, known as the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). A nonparametric regression model, based on Penalized Splines, has been implemented and its equivalence with mixed model has been exploited. Also a two way fixed effect regression model is used, to verify the difference in turning points. Two dissimilar datasets have been used. The former contains information about countries without missing data. In the latter countries with a low number of missing data have been added, after an imputation procedure. A more complex analysis than those ones generally assumed by researchers has been carried out. It depends on the data used.
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