Background: This survey investigated the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards HPV preventive measures among university students in Italy and their associated factors. Methods: The cross-sectional survey was conducted between November 2022 and April 2023. Results: Only 41.7% knew about HPV infection and the main preventive measures. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis showed that females, those aged 25-30 years, those who have had oral sex, those who had received information about HPV infection and preventive measures from physicians, and those who needed additional information about HPV infection and preventive measures were more knowledgeable. Only 39.1% have received at least one HPV vaccination dose, whereas 29.2% and 31.7% had not been vaccinated or did not remember. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis identified that female students enrolled in the field of health sciences, those who did not report a prior history of a sexually transmitted infection, and those with a higher knowledge about HPV infection and preventive measures were more willing to receive the HPV vaccination. Conclusions: Despite some limitations, this was the first detailed survey on this topic conducted in the post-acute phase of COVID-19 among university students in Italy. The survey underlined the need to develop and to implement comprehensive educational programs and health interventions among students, to enhance their knowledge and modify their attitudes and improve the HPV vaccine uptake.
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