This study evaluates the current collection and recycling of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in Italy by means of the analysis of national and regional data from EUROSTAT and the Italian WEEE Coordination Centre database, as well as through qualitative interviews with key stakeholders of the WEEE management system of the Campania region (Southern Italy). Urban systems, among which the metropolitan city of Naples in the Campania region, are the main users of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) and, as a consequence, the main generators of WEEE, which must be managed and recovered properly in order to prevent the loss of valuable resources and the associated environmental impacts. In addition to analysing the current state of WEEE collection and recycling in Italy and its regions and urban systems, the study aims to improve our understanding of the WEEE reverse supply chain and the main barriers and drivers to collection and recycling. The results reveal that the main barriers to the collection/delivery/recycling of WEEE resulted in the low awareness of the citizens about the importance of WEEE recovery, the lack of trust towards administrators, the lack of certified first treatment plants, the aversion of the citizens to the opening of new plants due to past inefficient solutions in solid waste management, the exploitation of high value materials only (so-called “cannibalization”, the illegal trade of WEEE, the influence of the market on the valorization of secondary materials), and, finally, the dominance of economic efficiency over the proximity advantage for the disposal of solid waste. On the other hand, the main drivers for collection emerged to be the adoption of education programmes in schools and constant communication campaigns directed to citizens in order to improve WEEE collection and recycling behaviour; the adoption of economic and non-economic incentives; the availability of municipal collection points (ecological islands) and other collection centres characterised by easy access by citizens for the delivery of their WEEE.
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