Physical activity combined with a polyphenols rich diet have been recently emerged as a non-pharmacological approach able to prevent and/or ameliorate symptoms that are related to the disfunctions of energy-related health processes, in particular during aging. In this article we first described the key role of mitochondrial functions in energy production systems that are activated during different types of physical activity. Then, we have reported some relevant and recent aspects concerning aging-related mitochondrial disfunctions involved in several human diseases, providing an overview of the most relevant in vivo and in vitro studies. These studies aimed to the identification of molecular mechanisms causing mitochondrial disfunctions including mitochondrial DNA mutations, radical oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative stress, that led to aging-related sarcopenia. These results explored the major approaches used for the prevention and the treatments of mitochondrial diseases. In particular, we have highlighted the effects of physical exercise and plant polyphenols on mitochondrial function in the aerobic mechanism of ATP synthesis. In fact, the secretion of myokines from contracting skeletal muscle allows the modulation of various metabolic processes and can improve mitochondria cell and bioenergetic functions. Polyphenol intake has been shown to counteract several aging-related alterations including inflammation and oxidative stress, and therefore we describe the effects of these molecules, also in pure form, as food integration, and we have also summarized their effects on mitochondrial functions. Finally, we have reviewed the state of art of these strategies focusing on both physical exercise and plant polyphenols-rich diet based approaches on skeletal muscle mitochondrial health in humans that aim to prevent and counteract aging-related diseases.

Effects of physical exercise and plant polyphenols on human mitochondrial health

Rosarita Nasso;Antonio D'Errico;Mariorosario Masullo;Rosaria Arcone
2022

Abstract

Physical activity combined with a polyphenols rich diet have been recently emerged as a non-pharmacological approach able to prevent and/or ameliorate symptoms that are related to the disfunctions of energy-related health processes, in particular during aging. In this article we first described the key role of mitochondrial functions in energy production systems that are activated during different types of physical activity. Then, we have reported some relevant and recent aspects concerning aging-related mitochondrial disfunctions involved in several human diseases, providing an overview of the most relevant in vivo and in vitro studies. These studies aimed to the identification of molecular mechanisms causing mitochondrial disfunctions including mitochondrial DNA mutations, radical oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative stress, that led to aging-related sarcopenia. These results explored the major approaches used for the prevention and the treatments of mitochondrial diseases. In particular, we have highlighted the effects of physical exercise and plant polyphenols on mitochondrial function in the aerobic mechanism of ATP synthesis. In fact, the secretion of myokines from contracting skeletal muscle allows the modulation of various metabolic processes and can improve mitochondria cell and bioenergetic functions. Polyphenol intake has been shown to counteract several aging-related alterations including inflammation and oxidative stress, and therefore we describe the effects of these molecules, also in pure form, as food integration, and we have also summarized their effects on mitochondrial functions. Finally, we have reviewed the state of art of these strategies focusing on both physical exercise and plant polyphenols-rich diet based approaches on skeletal muscle mitochondrial health in humans that aim to prevent and counteract aging-related diseases.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11367/108557
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