Phase angle (PhA), a directly-measured bioelectrical impedance analysis variable, is suggested to be a proxy of body cell mass as well as extracellular/intracellular water ratio, and is related to cellular integrity and functions. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate PhA in healthy youths in relation to sex, age, weight status, physical fitness, and sports activities. A systematic literature search (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses criteria) until January 2022 was performed using PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science regarding studies on PhA in healthy children and adolescents 4-18 years of age. Quality was assessed according to the National Institute of Health. After removing duplicates and studies not fulfilling the inclusion criteria, 22 cross-sectional and 1 longitudinal were considered appropriate. As for quality, 14 articles were rated fair and 9 good. Ten studies found that PhA increases with age: the increase was more marked after puberty, whereas changes in younger subjects are by far less defined. A clear sex difference was found in adolescents, likely due to pubertal development. Limited evidence suggests that PhA increases in participants with very high BMI. Limited data were reported on physically active youths without convincing findings. Positive associations of PhA with physical fitness and fat-free mass were found in few studies. In conclusion, partial and limited evidence suggests that changes in PhA over the first 2 decades of life reflect modification in body composition and fat-free mass composition. Further studies are needed for confirming PhA as a relevant marker of nutritional status in youths.

Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)- Derived Phase Angle in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

Ballarin, Giada;Valerio, Giuliana;
2022

Abstract

Phase angle (PhA), a directly-measured bioelectrical impedance analysis variable, is suggested to be a proxy of body cell mass as well as extracellular/intracellular water ratio, and is related to cellular integrity and functions. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate PhA in healthy youths in relation to sex, age, weight status, physical fitness, and sports activities. A systematic literature search (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses criteria) until January 2022 was performed using PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science regarding studies on PhA in healthy children and adolescents 4-18 years of age. Quality was assessed according to the National Institute of Health. After removing duplicates and studies not fulfilling the inclusion criteria, 22 cross-sectional and 1 longitudinal were considered appropriate. As for quality, 14 articles were rated fair and 9 good. Ten studies found that PhA increases with age: the increase was more marked after puberty, whereas changes in younger subjects are by far less defined. A clear sex difference was found in adolescents, likely due to pubertal development. Limited evidence suggests that PhA increases in participants with very high BMI. Limited data were reported on physically active youths without convincing findings. Positive associations of PhA with physical fitness and fat-free mass were found in few studies. In conclusion, partial and limited evidence suggests that changes in PhA over the first 2 decades of life reflect modification in body composition and fat-free mass composition. Further studies are needed for confirming PhA as a relevant marker of nutritional status in youths.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11367/108038
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