The growing environmental spreading of food synthetic dyes and bio-colors have the potential for altering organisms’ redox states. Here, three model species for aquatic pollution trials, Cucumis sativus seeds, Artemia salina cysts, and Danio rerio embryos, were short-term exposed to a fixed concentration of the artificial red E124, and two red bio-colors, cochineal E120, and vegan red (VEGR). In the animal models, we evaluated the total reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the susceptibility to in vitro oxidative stress, and in C. sativus, H2O2 production and antioxidant capacity. We also measured organismal performance indices (routine oxygen consumption in the animal models, dark oxygen consumption, and photosynthetic efficiency in C. sativus). In C. sativus, only E124 increased ROS and affected dark oxygen consumption and photosynthetic efficiency, while all dyes enhanced the antioxidant defenses. In the A. salina nauplii, all dyes increased ROS, while E120 and E124 reduced the susceptibility to oxidative stress. In D. rerio, treatments did not affect ROS content, and reduced oxidative stress susceptibility. Our data show that red food dyes affect the redox state of the developing organisms, in which ROS plays a significant role. We suggest a potentially toxic role for red food dyes with environmentally relevant consequences.

Commercial Red Food Dyes Preparations Modulate the Oxidative State in Three Model Organisms (Cucumis sativus, Artemia salina, and Danio rerio)

Gaetana Napolitano
;
Palma Simoniello
;
2022

Abstract

The growing environmental spreading of food synthetic dyes and bio-colors have the potential for altering organisms’ redox states. Here, three model species for aquatic pollution trials, Cucumis sativus seeds, Artemia salina cysts, and Danio rerio embryos, were short-term exposed to a fixed concentration of the artificial red E124, and two red bio-colors, cochineal E120, and vegan red (VEGR). In the animal models, we evaluated the total reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the susceptibility to in vitro oxidative stress, and in C. sativus, H2O2 production and antioxidant capacity. We also measured organismal performance indices (routine oxygen consumption in the animal models, dark oxygen consumption, and photosynthetic efficiency in C. sativus). In C. sativus, only E124 increased ROS and affected dark oxygen consumption and photosynthetic efficiency, while all dyes enhanced the antioxidant defenses. In the A. salina nauplii, all dyes increased ROS, while E120 and E124 reduced the susceptibility to oxidative stress. In D. rerio, treatments did not affect ROS content, and reduced oxidative stress susceptibility. Our data show that red food dyes affect the redox state of the developing organisms, in which ROS plays a significant role. We suggest a potentially toxic role for red food dyes with environmentally relevant consequences.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11367/105675
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