In the present paper, a comprehensive, wall-adapted zonal URANS/LES methodology is shown for the multidimensional simulation of modern direct-injection engines. This work is the latest update of a zonal hybrid turbulence modeling approach, specifically developed by the authors for a flexible description of in-cylinder turbulent flow features with an optimal balance between computational costs and accuracy. Compared to the previous developments, a specific near-wall treatment is added, in order to preserve full-URANS behavior in the first near-wall cells, having in mind typically available mesh resolution in this part of the fluid domain. The updated methodology is applied to the multi-cycle simulation of a reference single-cylinder optical engine, which features a twin-cam, overhead-valve pent-roof cylinder head, and is representative of the current generation of spark-ignited direct-injection thermal power units. Results based on phase-specific flow field statistics and synthetic quality indices demonstrate the consistency and effectiveness of the proposed methodology, which is then qualified as a suitable candidate for affordable scale-resolving analyses of cycle to cycle variability (CCV) phenomena in direct-injection engines.
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